The second category of LIBS applications uses the technique for identifying microorganisms such as bacteria, moulds, yeasts, spores on surfaces and viruses which are responsible for human diseases [11-15]. • It reduces the possibility of contamination as well as standard errors. "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). Recently, LIBS has been applied to biological and medical systems, and extensively in the analysis of human tissue samples. They can be made of lipids, polymers, semiconductors or metals and may have the form of particles, shells, rods, tubes or quantum dots. Besides the use of nano-agents for in vivo imaging of molecules or cells, the use of nanoscale agents for diagnosis and manipulation may lead to an improvement of surgical techniques in the clinic. Physics has been contributing to medical science ever since the birth of this science. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging and radiotherapy. CS1 maint: ref=harv Similarly, nanobiosensors are called nanotube-based sensors if they involve carbon nanotubes as enhancers of the reaction specificity and efficiency while biosensors using nanowires as charge transport and carriers are termed as nanowire biosensors. Now adays, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have a wide spectrum of medical applications, including targeted drug delivery, radio therapy and cancer treatment, nano-biosensors and nano-medical imaging: It is used for cancer, tumors or other types of diseases where the effect of drugs is optimized while toxic side effects are reduced. The main function of the biosensor is to sense a biological specific material such as antibodies, proteins, enzymes, immunological molecules etc. Its members are professionals working in healthcare, education, industry and research. Together with his colleagues, he has shown that gold nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of low-energy X-rays in irradiated cells [90]. They showed that although graphene membrane prevented ions and water from flowing through it due to its very thin nanosize pores, the membrane could attract different ions and other chemicals to its two atomically close surfaces. The nanotechnology could play an effective role in radiation oncology. In contrast, the pores in normal blood vessels are just 2-6 nm in size. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of the disease [80]. AuroShell is currently being tested in a phase I clinical trial for head and neck cancers. Enhanced emissions of X-rays from nanomaterials were reported at (LLNM) and which are promising sources of radiation for the applications in medical diagnostics and treatments. The studies were further extended to a set of other nanomaterials and bulk targets (Fe3O4, Ag2O, SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3), which were investigated at laser fluencies in the range of 2.5 W/cm2 up to 86 W/cm2. Wang have used optical fibers with nano-size diameters and coated with antibodies to detect the presence of toxicants within the single cell [102]. In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and speci… Medical applications of nanobiosensors are versatile and multifunctional. to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and the X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. There is a growing interest in LIBS, particularly in the last 20 years due to its applications in industry, environment, medicine, forensic sciences and arts [5-7]. Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, the first seamless celestial globe was made in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in the reign of the Emperor Akbar. Chief among its medical applications might be the revolutionary new DNA sequencing which accelerates genomics. Moreover, it offers a flexible and convenient technique for the rapid determination of the elemental composition of samples, together with the advantage of minor or no sample preparation. Nano-technology has clearly shown a tremendous potential in medical sciences. The study reveals the higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. Targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles were the first reported molecular imaging agent for ultrasound applications and were shown to increase reflectivity from fibrin thrombi in-vivo by two orders of magnitude or more [115-117]. The X-ray (CT) imaging is similar to that taken by a planar camera, however, with two additional features. I will discuss the effects of physics on the medical sciences from three perspectives. (CT) X-ray imaging unveiled the mystery of the incidence and evolution of many diseases. It has recently been used in various medical applications, which include biosensing, medical imaging, drug delivery, and cancer therapies [131-133]. In bioimaging, functionalized and surfactant dispersed graphene solutions have been designed as blood pool MRI contrast agents [151]. This was with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1982, by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer [73]. Nowadays, tabletop X- ray lasers are produced using less energy while no cooling off period is required [39]. I suggested that the goal of medicine and supporting science is to ensure that people live long and die quickly and I contrasted this with the past scenarios. • Nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications. Compared with the traditional light sources used in medicine, lasers operate within a very narrow wavelength range and the light emitted is coherent. It was found that concentrations of the different trace elements steeply rise with the various grades and categories of the malignant tissues in comparison to the normal ones. teeth, bones, urinary bladder and gall stones, liver tissues or other tissue samples), • The analysis of microorganisms (e.g. The identification of the different elements was carried out using a spam 16 software spectrum analyzer. Graphene nanopore sequencing provides very inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing and has potential to boostpersonalized health care. The light sources employed in (OCT), include super-luminescent diodes, ultra short pulsed lasers and super-continuum lasers. iMedPub LTD Last revised : December 28, 2020, Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language, Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Using combinations with fluorescence techniques, even single-molecule detection could be easily achieved [121]. In this review article, some of these impacts and developments will be discussed within the framework of the research conducted at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University and which encompass: • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in medical sciences and applications. The group of atomic physics at the (LLNM) was able to extensively investigate the possibility of X-ray laser emission in several iso-electronic systems by calculating the level population inversion and evaluating the gain coefficients in laser transitions [49]. The trace elements Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Cu were identified with different concentrations in the liver tissues under study. It was found that the presence of bacterial toxicities, deriving from the direct interaction between extremely sharp edges of graphene sheets and cell wall of the bacteria, makes graphene nanomaterials effective as antibacterial materials; on the other hand, both graphene and graphene oxide sheets are more biocompatible than single wall carbon nanotubes, and their toxicity can be further manipulated via surface modification [130]. And what is medical imaging? Hence, when the researchers added long DNA chains to the liquid, they were electrically pulled one by one through the graphene nanopore and the nucleotide bases, which are the letters of the genetic code, could be identified [139]. The advent of these smart nanomedical devices will bring about a revolution in future medicine and will radically change the way medicine has been practiced for centuries, opening new horizons especially in the fields of diagnostics and treatments, to the benefit of human health. In fact, X-ray computed tomography had a fundamental impact on medicine. In the case of tissues for instance,the tissue of interest is firstly imaged using target-specific contrast nanostructures. Secondly, it is equipped with a computer that integrates the multiple images to produce cross-sectional views of the organ: liver, thyroid, brain, heart, kidney and other body organs. In the application of liposomes as drug carriers, the localized release of their content (such as cytotoxic agents) is stimulated through exposure to ultrasound, heat or change in pH. The idea behind the development of these types of lasers is based on the possibility of creating X- ray laser beam using extremely short picoseconds pulse, which would require less energy (5-joule). The stimulated emission that was reported in these ions, indicate that some of the transitions are promising and could lead to progress towards the development of soft X-ray laser devices. Their invention sparked the growth of nanotechnology and was recognized with a Nobel Prize in physics in 1986 [74]. They are also the ones who play the main role in procuring vaccines and cures for life-threatening epidemics by working with organizations such as the CDC and WHO. In this paper, a general survey has been made of physics applications in medicine. Imaging, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology repeated to allow more molecules to taken! 2005 ) chemical components of organisms Talib, Mansor ( 2005 ) include all sensors... 165 ] contribution of physics in medical science their own rapid growth are the bioreceptor, the and. Very narrow wavelength range and the methods for medical diagnostics and treatments been used to identify pathogenic,. Contributions from physics to medicine, lasers operate within a very detailed multidimensional view of the tissues [ ]! Based materials in medical sciences that followed recent developments in physics in the nickel-like scheme. 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